List Inlay

Kayak list expansion


Show a list of items as rows in a column. When the user selects an item, open that item’s details in place, within the list itself. Allow items to be opened and closed independently of each other.

Use when

You have a list of items to show. Each item has interesting content associated with it, such as the text of an email message, a long article, a full-size image, or details about a file’s size or date. The item details don’t take up a large amount of space, but they’re not so small that you can fit them all in the list itself.

You want the user to see the overall structure of the list and keep that list in view all the time, but you also want her to browse through the items easily and quickly. Users may want to see two or more item contents at a time, for comparison.

The list of items has a vertically oriented, columnar structure.

Compare to: One-Window Drilldown, Two-Panel Selector


A List Inlay shows an item’s details within the context of the list itself. The user can see the surrounding items, which might help in understanding and using the item contents.

Also, a user can see the details of multiple items at once. This is not possible in Two-Panel Selector, One-Window Drilldown, rollover windows, or most other ways of displaying item details. If your use cases call for frequent comparison of two or more items, this might be the best option.

Because a List Inlay is neatly contained within a vertical column, it can be combined well with a Two-Panel Selector to present a three-level containment hierarchy. Consider an email client or RSS reader, for instance—the messages or articles might be viewed in a List Inlay, while the item containers (mailboxes, groupings, filters, etc.) are shown next to it in a Two-Panel Selector structure.


Show list items in a column. When the user clicks on one, open the item in place to show the details of that item. A similar gesture should close the item back up again.

When an item is opened, enlarge the item’s space downward, pushing the subsequent items down the page. Other items do the same when opened. A scrolled area should be used to contain this ever-changing vertical structure, since it could get very tall indeed!

To close the details panel, use a control that clearly indicates its purpose (e.g., “Close” or “X”). Some implementations of List Inlay only put that control at the end of the details panel, but users may need it at the top if the panel is long and they don’t want to move down the whole thing. Put a closing control very near the original “open” control (or replace one with the other). This at least ensures that the user’s pointer won’t move very far if she wants to open an item, glance at it, close it, and move on.

Use an Animated Transition as the item opens and closes, to keep the user oriented and to focus attention on the newly opened item.

If your application permits the user to edit items, you could use a List Inlay to open an editor instead of item details (or in addition to them).

A list that uses List Inlays works the same way as an Accordion: everything lies in a single column, with panels opening and closing in situ within it. Likewise, a Two-Panel Selector works like a set of tabs, and One-Window Drilldownis like a Menu Page (Chapter 3).


Google Reader uses a List Inlay within the context of a Two-Panel Selector. It has a multi-level hierarchy of containers to present; the containers are shown in the tree selector on the left, but the list of articles takes up Center Stage and the user can then open them in place to read them.

Google Reader

Rather than forcing the user to pogo-stick back and forth from the list of book reviews to the actual text of each review, Amazon’s mobile site lets users read them in a List Inlay. The list of items on the left tempts the user with short teasers from each review, and when a user is interested enough to keep reading, she can tap the title to read the whole thing. The existence of plus and minus controls signals to the user that these items expand.

Amazon on iPhone

In other libraries

Inline Expand at

Bill Scott and Theresa Neil identified this technique in their book, Designing Web Interfaces. List Inlays are one of a set of inlay techniques that includes Dialog Inlays and Detail Inlays.

The Accordion pattern exists in many pattern libraries, including this one. Much of the design advice proffered for Accordion can apply equally well to List Inlay. (There really isn’t a huge practical difference between them.)